# 不完全信息

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Chess is an example of a game of perfect information.

[国际象棋是完全信息博弈的一个例子]

In economics, **perfect information** (sometimes referred to as "no hidden information") is a feature of perfect competition. With perfect information in a market, all consumers and producers have perfect and instantaneous knowledge of all market prices, their own utility, and own cost functions.

In economics, perfect information (sometimes referred to as "no hidden information") is a feature of perfect competition. With perfect information in a market, all consumers and producers have perfect and instantaneous knowledge of all market prices, their own utility, and own cost functions.

在经济学中，完全信息(有时被称为“没有隐藏的信息”)是完全竞争的一个特征。在一个完全信息的市场中，所有的消费者和生产者都对所有的市场价格、他们自己的效用和自己的成本函数有完全和即时的知识。

In game theory, a sequential game has **perfect information** if each player, when making any decision, is perfectly informed of all the events that have previously occurred, including the "initialization event" of the game (e.g. the starting hands of each player in a card game).^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}

In game theory, a sequential game has perfect information if each player, when making any decision, is perfectly informed of all the events that have previously occurred, including the "initialization event" of the game (e.g. the starting hands of each player in a card game).

在博弈论中，如果每个参与者在做任何决定时都完全知道之前发生的所有事件，包括博弈的“初始化事件” ，那么序贯博弈就具有完美的信息。在纸牌游戏中，每个玩家的发令手)。

Perfect information is importantly different from complete information, which implies common knowledge of each player's utility functions, payoffs, strategies and "types". A game with perfect information may or may not have complete information.

Perfect information is importantly different from complete information, which implies common knowledge of each player's utility functions, payoffs, strategies and "types". A game with perfect information may or may not have complete information.

完全信息不同于完全信息，完全信息意味着对每个玩家的效用函数、收益、策略和“类型”的共同知识。有完全信息的博弈可能有也可能没有完全信息。

## Examples

[西洋双陆棋包括偶然事件，但是根据某些定义，它被归类为完全信息游戏。]

[德州扑克是一个信息不完全的游戏，因为玩家不知道对手的私人牌]

Chess is an example of a game with perfect information as each player can see all the pieces on the board at all times.^{[2]} Other examples of games with perfect information include tic-tac-toe, checkers, infinite chess, and Go.^{[3]}

Chess is an example of a game with perfect information as each player can see all the pieces on the board at all times. Other examples of games with perfect information include tic-tac-toe, checkers, infinite chess, and Go.

国际象棋是具有完美信息的游戏的一个例子，因为每个玩家可以随时看到棋盘上的所有棋子。具有完全信息的其他游戏的例子包括井字游戏、跳棋、无限象棋和围棋。

Card games where each player's cards are *hidden* from other players such as poker and bridge are examples of games with imperfect information.引用错误：没有找到与`</ref>`

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Academic literature has not produced consensus on a standard definition of perfect information which defines whether games with chance, *but no secret information*, and games without *simultaneous moves* are games of perfect information.^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[4]}

Academic literature has not produced consensus on a standard definition of perfect information which defines whether games with chance, but no secret information, and games without simultaneous moves are games of perfect information.

学术文献没有对完全信息的标准定义达成共识，这个定义界定了是否有机会的博弈，但没有秘密信息，没有同时移动的博弈是完全信息的博弈。

Games which are sequential (players alternate in moving) and which have chance events (with known probabilities to all players) but *no secret information*, are sometimes considered games of perfect information. This includes games such as backgammon and Monopoly. But there are some academic papers which do not regard such games as games of perfect information because the results of chance themselves are unknown prior to them occurring.^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[4]}

Games which are sequential (players alternate in moving) and which have chance events (with known probabilities to all players) but no secret information, are sometimes considered games of perfect information. This includes games such as backgammon and Monopoly. But there are some academic papers which do not regard such games as games of perfect information because the results of chance themselves are unknown prior to them occurring.

游戏是连续的(玩家在移动中交替) ，有机会事件(所有玩家的概率都已知) ，但没有秘密信息，有时被认为是完全信息的游戏。这包括西洋双陆棋和大富翁等游戏。但是有些学术论文并不认为这种博弈是完全信息博弈，因为机会本身的结果在它们发生之前是未知的。

Games with *simultaneous moves* are generally not considered games of perfect information. This is because each of the players holds information which is secret, and must play a move without knowing the opponent's secret information. Nevertheless, some such games are symmetrical, and fair. An example of a game in this category includes rock paper scissors.^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[4]}

Games with simultaneous moves are generally not considered games of perfect information. This is because each of the players holds information which is secret, and must play a move without knowing the opponent's secret information. Nevertheless, some such games are symmetrical, and fair. An example of a game in this category includes rock paper scissors.

同时移动的博弈一般不被认为是完全信息博弈。这是因为每个玩家都掌握着机密信息，必须在不知道对手机密信息的情况下进行一个动作。然而，有些这样的游戏是对称的、公平的。这类游戏的一个例子包括石头剪刀布。

## See also

## References

- ↑ Osborne, M. J.; Rubinstein, A. (1994). "Chapter 6: Extensive Games with Perfect Information".
*A Course in Game Theory*. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-65040-1. - ↑
^{2.0}^{2.1}Khomskii, Yurii (2010). "Infinite Games (section 1.1)" (PDF). - ↑
^{3.0}^{3.1}"Infinite Chess".*PBS Infinite Series*. March 2, 2017. Perfect information defined at 0:25, with academic sources 模板:ArXiv and 模板:ArXiv. - ↑
^{4.0}^{4.1}^{4.2}^{4.3}Mycielski, Jan (1992). "Games with Perfect Information".*Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications*.**Volume 1**. pp. 41–70. doi:10.1016/S1574-0005(05)80006-2. - ↑
^{5.0}^{5.1}{{cite book 引用错误：无效`<ref>`

标签；name属性“OsbRub94-Chap11”使用不同内容定义了多次 - ↑
^{6.0}^{6.1}^{6.2}Chen, Su-I Lu, Vekhter. "Game Theory: Rock, Paper, Scissors".CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) - ↑
^{7.0}^{7.1}^{7.2}Ferguson, Thomas S. "Game Theory" (PDF). UCLA Department of Mathematics. pp. 56–57. - ↑
^{8.0}^{8.1}^{8.2}Burch; Johanson; Bowling. "Solving Imperfect Information Games Using Decomposition".*Proceedings of the Twenty-Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence*. - ↑
^{9.0}^{9.1}^{9.2}"Complete vs Perfect Information in Combinatorial Game Theory".*Stack Exchange*. June 24, 2014.

## Further reading

- Fudenberg, D. and Tirole, J. (1993)
*Game Theory*, MIT Press. (see Chapter 3, sect 2.2)

- Gibbons, R. (1992)
*A primer in game theory*, Harvester-Wheatsheaf. (see Chapter 2)

- Luce, R.D. and Raiffa, H. (1957)
*Games and Decisions: Introduction and Critical Survey*, Wiley & Sons (see Chapter 3, section 2)

- The Economics of
*Groundhog Day*by economist D.W. MacKenzie, using the 1993 film*Groundhog Day*to argue that perfect information, and therefore perfect competition, is impossible.

- Watson, J. (2013)
*Strategy: An Introdution to Game Theory*, W.W. Norton and Co.

Category:Game theory

范畴: 博弈论

Category:Perfect competition

类别: 完美竞争

Category:Board game gameplay and terminology

类别: 棋盘游戏的游戏性和术语

This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Perfect information. Its edit history can be viewed at 不完全信息/edithistory