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1<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1"><title>winbindd</title><link rel="stylesheet" href="samba.css" type="text/css"><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL Stylesheets V1.68.1"></head><body bgcolor="white" text="black" link="#0000FF" vlink="#840084" alink="#0000FF"><div class="refentry" lang="en"><a name="winbindd.8"></a><div class="titlepage"></div><div class="refnamediv"><h2>Name</h2><p>winbindd &#8212; Name Service Switch daemon for resolving names
2        from NT servers</p></div><div class="refsynopsisdiv"><h2>Synopsis</h2><div class="cmdsynopsis"><p><code class="command">winbindd</code>  [-F] [-S] [-i] [-Y] [-d &lt;debug level&gt;] [-s &lt;smb config file&gt;] [-n]</p></div></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id231141"></a><h2>DESCRIPTION</h2><p>This program is part of the <a href="samba.7.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">samba</span>(7)</span></a> suite.</p><p><span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> is a daemon that provides
3        a number of services to the Name Service Switch capability found
4        in most modern C libraries, to arbitary applications via PAM
5        and <span><strong class="command">ntlm_auth</strong></span> and to Samba itself.</p><p>Even if winbind is not used for nsswitch, it still provides a
6    service to <span><strong class="command">smbd</strong></span>, <span><strong class="command">ntlm_auth</strong></span>
7    and the <span><strong class="command">pam_winbind.so</strong></span> PAM module, by managing connections to
8    domain controllers.  In this configuraiton the
9    <a class="indexterm" name="id231194"></a>idmap uid and
10    <a class="indexterm" name="id231201"></a>idmap gid
11    parameters are not required. (This is known as `netlogon proxy only mode'.)</p><p> The Name Service Switch allows user
12        and system information to be obtained from different databases
13        services such as NIS or DNS.  The exact behaviour can be configured
14        throught the <code class="filename">/etc/nsswitch.conf</code> file. 
15        Users and groups are allocated as they are resolved to a range
16        of user and group ids specified by the administrator of the
17        Samba system.</p><p>The service provided by <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> is called `winbind' and
18        can be used to resolve user and group information from a
19        Windows NT server. The service can also provide authentication
20        services via an associated PAM module. </p><p>
21        The <code class="filename">pam_winbind</code> module supports the
22        <em class="parameter"><code>auth</code></em>, <em class="parameter"><code>account</code></em>
23        and <em class="parameter"><code>password</code></em>
24        module-types.  It should be noted that the
25        <em class="parameter"><code>account</code></em> module simply performs a getpwnam() to verify that
26        the system can obtain a uid for the user, as the domain
27        controller has already performed access control.  If the
28        <code class="filename">libnss_winbind</code> library has been correctly
29        installed, or an alternate source of names configured, this should always succeed.
30        </p><p>The following nsswitch databases are implemented by
31        the winbindd service: </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">hosts</span></dt><dd><p>This feature is only available on IRIX.
32                User information traditionally stored in
33                the <code class="filename">hosts(5)</code> file and used by
34                <span><strong class="command">gethostbyname(3)</strong></span> functions. Names are
35                resolved through the WINS server or by broadcast.
36                </p></dd><dt><span class="term">passwd</span></dt><dd><p>User information traditionally stored in
37                the <code class="filename">passwd(5)</code> file and used by
38                <span><strong class="command">getpwent(3)</strong></span> functions. </p></dd><dt><span class="term">group</span></dt><dd><p>Group information traditionally stored in
39                the <code class="filename">group(5)</code> file and used by             
40                <span><strong class="command">getgrent(3)</strong></span> functions. </p></dd></dl></div><p>For example, the following simple configuration in the
41        <code class="filename">/etc/nsswitch.conf</code> file can be used to initially
42        resolve user and group information from <code class="filename">/etc/passwd
43        </code> and <code class="filename">/etc/group</code> and then from the
44        Windows NT server.
45</p><pre class="programlisting">
46passwd:         files winbind
47group:          files winbind
48## only available on IRIX; Linux users should us libnss_wins.so
49hosts:          files dns winbind
50</pre><p>The following simple configuration in the
51        <code class="filename">/etc/nsswitch.conf</code> file can be used to initially
52        resolve hostnames from <code class="filename">/etc/hosts</code> and then from the
53        WINS server.</p><pre class="programlisting">
54hosts:          files wins
55</pre></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id230548"></a><h2>OPTIONS</h2><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">-F</span></dt><dd><p>If specified, this parameter causes
56                the main <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> process to not daemonize,
57                i.e. double-fork and disassociate with the terminal.
58                Child processes are still created as normal to service
59                each connection request, but the main process does not
60                exit. This operation mode is suitable for running
61                <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> under process supervisors such
62                as <span><strong class="command">supervise</strong></span> and <span><strong class="command">svscan</strong></span>
63                from Daniel J. Bernstein's <span><strong class="command">daemontools</strong></span>
64                package, or the AIX process monitor.
65                </p></dd><dt><span class="term">-S</span></dt><dd><p>If specified, this parameter causes
66                <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> to log to standard output rather
67                than a file.</p></dd><dt><span class="term">-V</span></dt><dd><p>Prints the program version number.
68</p></dd><dt><span class="term">-s &lt;configuration file&gt;</span></dt><dd><p>The file specified contains the
69configuration details required by the server.  The
70information in this file includes server-specific
71information such as what printcap file to use, as well
72as descriptions of all the services that the server is
73to provide. See <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> for more information.
74The default configuration file name is determined at
75compile time.</p></dd><dt><span class="term">-d|--debuglevel=level</span></dt><dd><p><em class="replaceable"><code>level</code></em> is an integer
76from 0 to 10.  The default value if this parameter is
77not specified is zero.</p><p>The higher this value, the more detail will be
78logged to the log files about the activities of the
79server. At level 0, only critical errors and serious
80warnings will be logged. Level 1 is a reasonable level for
81day-to-day running - it generates a small amount of
82information about operations carried out.</p><p>Levels above 1 will generate considerable
83amounts of log data, and should only be used when
84investigating a problem. Levels above 3 are designed for
85use only by developers and generate HUGE amounts of log
86data, most of which is extremely cryptic.</p><p>Note that specifying this parameter here will
87override the <a class="indexterm" name="id271776"></a> parameter
88in the <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> file.</p></dd><dt><span class="term">-l|--logfile=logdirectory</span></dt><dd><p>Base directory name for log/debug files. The extension
89<code class="constant">".progname"</code> will be appended (e.g. log.smbclient,
90log.smbd, etc...). The log file is never removed by the client.
91</p></dd><dt><span class="term">-h|--help</span></dt><dd><p>Print a summary of command line options.
92</p></dd><dt><span class="term">-i</span></dt><dd><p>Tells <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> to not
93                become a daemon and detach from the current terminal. This
94                option is used by developers when interactive debugging
95                of <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> is required.
96                <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> also logs to standard output,
97                as if the <span><strong class="command">-S</strong></span> parameter had been given.
98                </p></dd><dt><span class="term">-n</span></dt><dd><p>Disable caching. This means winbindd will
99                always have to wait for a response from the domain controller
100                before it can respond to a client and this thus makes things
101                slower. The results will however be more accurate, since
102                results from the cache might not be up-to-date. This
103                might also temporarily hang winbindd if the DC doesn't respond.
104                </p></dd><dt><span class="term">-Y</span></dt><dd><p>Single daemon mode. This means winbindd will run
105                as a single process (the mode of operation in Samba 2.2).  Winbindd's
106                default behavior is to launch a child process that is responsible for
107                updating expired cache entries.
108                </p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id271882"></a><h2>NAME AND ID RESOLUTION</h2><p>Users and groups on a Windows NT server are assigned
109        a security id (SID) which is globally unique when the
110        user or group is created.  To convert the Windows NT user or group
111        into a unix user or group, a mapping between SIDs and unix user
112        and group ids is required.  This is one of the jobs that <span><strong class="command">
113        winbindd</strong></span> performs. </p><p>As winbindd users and groups are resolved from a server, user
114        and group ids are allocated from a specified range.  This
115        is done on a first come, first served basis, although all existing
116        users and groups will be mapped as soon as a client performs a user
117        or group enumeration command.  The allocated unix ids are stored
118        in a database file under the Samba lock directory and will be
119        remembered. </p><p>WARNING: The SID to unix id database is the only location
120        where the user and group mappings are stored by winbindd.  If this
121        file is deleted or corrupted, there is no way for winbindd to
122        determine which user and group ids correspond to Windows NT user
123        and group rids. </p><p>See the <a class="indexterm" name="id271915"></a> parameter in
124        <code class="filename">smb.conf</code> for options for sharing this
125        database, such as via LDAP.</p></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id271929"></a><h2>CONFIGURATION</h2><p>Configuration of the <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> daemon
126        is done through configuration parameters in the <a href="smb.conf.5.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">smb.conf</span>(5)</span></a> file.  All parameters should be specified in the
127        [global] section of smb.conf. </p><div class="itemizedlist"><ul type="disc"><li><p>
128                <a class="indexterm" name="id271959"></a>winbind separator</p></li><li><p>
129                <a class="indexterm" name="id271971"></a>idmap uid</p></li><li><p>
130                <a class="indexterm" name="id271982"></a>idmap gid</p></li><li><p>
131                <a class="indexterm" name="id271993"></a>idmap backend</p></li><li><p>
132                <a class="indexterm" name="id272005"></a>winbind cache time</p></li><li><p>
133                <a class="indexterm" name="id272016"></a>winbind enum users</p></li><li><p>
134                <a class="indexterm" name="id272027"></a>winbind enum groups</p></li><li><p>
135                <a class="indexterm" name="id272039"></a>template homedir</p></li><li><p>
136                <a class="indexterm" name="id272050"></a>template shell</p></li><li><p>
137                <a class="indexterm" name="id272061"></a>winbind use default domain</p></li></ul></div></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id272072"></a><h2>EXAMPLE SETUP</h2><p>
138        To setup winbindd for user and group lookups plus
139        authentication from a domain controller use something like the
140        following setup. This was tested on an early Red Hat Linux box.
141        </p><p>In <code class="filename">/etc/nsswitch.conf</code> put the
142        following:
143</p><pre class="programlisting">
144passwd: files winbind
145group:  files winbind
146</pre><p>
147        </p><p>In <code class="filename">/etc/pam.d/*</code> replace the <em class="parameter"><code>
148        auth</code></em> lines with something like this:
149</p><pre class="programlisting">
150auth  required    /lib/security/pam_securetty.so
151auth  required    /lib/security/pam_nologin.so
152auth  sufficient  /lib/security/pam_winbind.so
153auth  required    /lib/security/pam_unix.so \
154                  use_first_pass shadow nullok
155</pre><p>
156        </p><div class="note" style="margin-left: 0.5in; margin-right: 0.5in;"><h3 class="title">Note</h3><p>
157        The PAM module pam_unix has recently replaced the module pam_pwdb.
158        Some Linux systems use the module pam_unix2 in place of pam_unix.
159        </p></div><p>Note in particular the use of the <em class="parameter"><code>sufficient
160        </code></em> keyword and the <em class="parameter"><code>use_first_pass</code></em> keyword. </p><p>Now replace the account lines with this: </p><p><span><strong class="command">account    required   /lib/security/pam_winbind.so
161        </strong></span></p><p>The next step is to join the domain. To do that use the
162        <span><strong class="command">net</strong></span> program like this:  </p><p><span><strong class="command">net join -S PDC -U Administrator</strong></span></p><p>The username after the <em class="parameter"><code>-U</code></em> can be any
163        Domain user that has administrator privileges on the machine.
164        Substitute the name or IP of your PDC for "PDC".</p><p>Next copy <code class="filename">libnss_winbind.so</code> to
165        <code class="filename">/lib</code> and <code class="filename">pam_winbind.so
166        </code> to <code class="filename">/lib/security</code>.  A symbolic link needs to be
167        made from <code class="filename">/lib/libnss_winbind.so</code> to
168        <code class="filename">/lib/libnss_winbind.so.2</code>.  If you are using an
169        older version of glibc then the target of the link should be
170        <code class="filename">/lib/libnss_winbind.so.1</code>.</p><p>Finally, setup a <a href="smb.conf.5.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">smb.conf</span>(5)</span></a> containing directives like the
171        following:
172</p><pre class="programlisting">
173[global]
174        winbind separator = +
175        winbind cache time = 10
176        template shell = /bin/bash
177        template homedir = /home/%D/%U
178        idmap uid = 10000-20000
179        idmap gid = 10000-20000
180        workgroup = DOMAIN
181        security = domain
182        password server = *
183</pre><p>Now start winbindd and you should find that your user and
184        group database is expanded to include your NT users and groups,
185        and that you can login to your unix box as a domain user, using
186        the DOMAIN+user syntax for the username. You may wish to use the
187        commands <span><strong class="command">getent passwd</strong></span> and <span><strong class="command">getent group
188        </strong></span> to confirm the correct operation of winbindd.</p></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id272263"></a><h2>NOTES</h2><p>The following notes are useful when configuring and
189        running <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span>: </p><p><a href="nmbd.8.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">nmbd</span>(8)</span></a> must be running on the local machine
190        for <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> to work. </p><p>PAM is really easy to misconfigure.  Make sure you know what
191        you are doing when modifying PAM configuration files.  It is possible
192        to set up PAM such that you can no longer log into your system. </p><p>If more than one UNIX machine is running <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span>,
193        then in general the user and groups ids allocated by winbindd will not
194        be the same.  The user and group ids will only be valid for the local
195        machine, unless a shared <a class="indexterm" name="id272310"></a> is configured.</p><p>If the the Windows NT SID to UNIX user and group id mapping
196        file is damaged or destroyed then the mappings will be lost. </p></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id272322"></a><h2>SIGNALS</h2><p>The following signals can be used to manipulate the
197        <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> daemon. </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">SIGHUP</span></dt><dd><p>Reload the <a href="smb.conf.5.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">smb.conf</span>(5)</span></a> file and
198                apply any parameter changes to the running
199                version of winbindd.  This signal also clears any cached
200                user and group information.  The list of other domains trusted
201                by winbindd is also reloaded.  </p></dd><dt><span class="term">SIGUSR2</span></dt><dd><p>The SIGUSR2 signal will cause <span><strong class="command">
202                winbindd</strong></span> to write status information to the winbind
203                log file.</p><p>Log files are stored in the filename specified by the
204                log file parameter.</p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id272385"></a><h2>FILES</h2><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term"><code class="filename">/etc/nsswitch.conf(5)</code></span></dt><dd><p>Name service switch configuration file.</p></dd><dt><span class="term">/tmp/.winbindd/pipe</span></dt><dd><p>The UNIX pipe over which clients communicate with
205                the <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> program.  For security reasons, the
206                winbind client will only attempt to connect to the winbindd daemon
207                if both the <code class="filename">/tmp/.winbindd</code> directory
208                and <code class="filename">/tmp/.winbindd/pipe</code> file are owned by
209                root. </p></dd><dt><span class="term">$LOCKDIR/winbindd_privileged/pipe</span></dt><dd><p>The UNIX pipe over which 'privileged' clients
210                communicate with the <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> program.  For security
211                reasons, access to some winbindd functions - like those needed by
212                the <span><strong class="command">ntlm_auth</strong></span> utility - is restricted.  By default,
213                only users in the 'root' group will get this access, however the administrator
214                may change the group permissions on $LOCKDIR/winbindd_privileged to allow
215                programs like 'squid' to use ntlm_auth.
216                Note that the winbind client will only attempt to connect to the winbindd daemon
217                if both the <code class="filename">$LOCKDIR/winbindd_privileged</code> directory
218                and <code class="filename">$LOCKDIR/winbindd_privileged/pipe</code> file are owned by
219                root. </p></dd><dt><span class="term">/lib/libnss_winbind.so.X</span></dt><dd><p>Implementation of name service switch library.
220                </p></dd><dt><span class="term">$LOCKDIR/winbindd_idmap.tdb</span></dt><dd><p>Storage for the Windows NT rid to UNIX user/group
221                id mapping.  The lock directory is specified when Samba is initially
222                compiled using the <em class="parameter"><code>--with-lockdir</code></em> option.
223                This directory is by default <code class="filename">/usr/local/samba/var/locks
224                </code>. </p></dd><dt><span class="term">$LOCKDIR/winbindd_cache.tdb</span></dt><dd><p>Storage for cached user and group information.
225                </p></dd></dl></div></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id272529"></a><h2>VERSION</h2><p>This man page is correct for version 3.0 of
226        the Samba suite.</p></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id272540"></a><h2>SEE ALSO</h2><p><code class="filename">nsswitch.conf(5)</code>, <a href="samba.7.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">samba</span>(7)</span></a>, <a href="wbinfo.1.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">wbinfo</span>(1)</span></a>, <a href="ntlm_auth.8.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">ntlm_auth</span>(8)</span></a>, <a href="smb.conf.5.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">smb.conf</span>(5)</span></a>, <a href="pam_winbind.8.html"><span class="citerefentry"><span class="refentrytitle">pam_winbind</span>(8)</span></a></p></div><div class="refsect1" lang="en"><a name="id272597"></a><h2>AUTHOR</h2><p>The original Samba software and related utilities
227        were created by Andrew Tridgell. Samba is now developed
228        by the Samba Team as an Open Source project similar
229        to the way the Linux kernel is developed.</p><p><span><strong class="command">wbinfo</strong></span> and <span><strong class="command">winbindd</strong></span> were
230        written by Tim Potter.</p><p>The conversion to DocBook for Samba 2.2 was done
231        by Gerald Carter. The conversion to DocBook XML 4.2 for
232        Samba 3.0 was done by Alexander Bokovoy.</p></div></div></body></html>
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